Abstract: Transformation of the agricultural sector has become a development imperative for many African countries in order to achieve the Millennium Development Goals that relate to improved food security and reduced hunger. Nigeria is no excep-tion and has recently initiated its own program with this objective, the Agricultural Transformation Agenda (ATA). Lessons from transforming traditional agriculture in the past have shown that for every level of sectoral transformation, corresponding levels of organizational and individual human capacity must be attained as well. This report presents the findings and recommendations of a capacity needs assessment study carried out between July and September 2012 in the context of the ATA. In this paper, we document an approach to capacity strengthening in the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (FMARD) to implement the ATA. The objectives of this report include mapping key institutions and stakeholders, analyzing institutional capacity strengths and gaps, and making recommendations to improve these capacities in relation to their proposed implementation roles. This report also identifies the leadership and management structure required within FMARD for the successful implementation of the ATA. We then make recommendations to improve capacity at the policy process and organizational levels to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of FMARD. Capacity assessments were carried out at three levels: the policy process level, the organizational level, and the individual level.