New Journal Publication – Characteristics of private-sector tractor service provisions: Insights from Nigeria
The Nigeria Strategy Support Program (NSSP) is pleased to announce the publication of “Characteristics of private-sector tractor service provisions: Insights from Nigeria” by Hiroyuki Takeshima, Hyacinth O. Edeh, Akeem O. Lawal, Moshud A. Isiaka in The Developing Economies (Vol. 54 Issue 3).
Abstract: Agricultural mechanization has been integral to agricultural transformation during periods of development. Mechanization-service provisions can be constrained by economies of scale, seasonality, limited mobility, or heterogeneous inputs quality. However, information has been scarce regarding how the private sector has overcome these constraints especially in countries like Nigeria that are at low agricultural development stages. We present the results of a small survey of tractor owner-operators conducted in Nigeria. We find that existing private-sector tractor-hiring services in Nigeria are indeed constrained. However, we also find heterogeneity among these owner-operators. In particular, those who buy tractors from private markets or from private individuals are more efficient than those who receive tractors through government programs, providing services to a greater area at lower costs, including during off-peak seasons, sometimes selecting machinery types according to soil types. We conclude with a discussion of some policy implications.
New Publication: Private sector participation in agricultural extension for cocoa farming in Nigeria
The Nigeria Strategy Support Program (NSSP) is pleased to share the publication of Private sector participation in agricultural extension for cocoa farming in Nigeria by Kolawole Adebayo, Suresh Chandra Babu, Rahman Sanusi, Motunrayo Sofola, as a chapter in Knowledge driven development: Private extension and global lessons edited by Yuan Zhou and Suresh Chandra Babu, and recently published by the Academic Press.
About this book:
Knowledge Driven Development: Private Extension and Global Lessons uses actual cases written specifically to study the role and capacity of private companies in knowledge sharing and intensification through agricultural extension. Descriptions of specific models and approaches are teased out of complex situations exhibiting a range of agricultural, regulatory, socio-economic variables. Illustrative cases focus on a particular agricultural value chain and elaborate the special feature of the associated private extension system.
Chapters presenting individual cases of private extension also highlight specific areas of variations and significant deviance. Each chapter begins with a section describing the background and agricultural context of the case, followed by a description of the specific crop value chain. Based on understanding of this context, extension models and methods by private companies receive deeper analysis and definition in the next section. This leads to a discussion of the private extension with respect to its relevance, efficiency, effectiveness, equity, sustainability and impact. Following that, comparison with public extension, the uniqueness of the knowledge intensification model, and lessons for its replication and scaling up are elaborated. The final chapter summarizes the major results from the ten cases presented, looking at the trends, commonalities and differences of various extension approaches and the general lessons for success or failure. It concludes with a set of messages around value creation, integrated services, market links, inclusive innovation, and capacity development.
New Journal Publication: Cassava intake and vitamin A status among women and preschool children in Akwa-Ibom, Nigeria
The Nigeria Strategy Support Program (NSSP) is pleased to share the publication of “Cassava intake and vitamin A status among women and preschool children in Akwa-Ibom, Nigeria” by Fabiana F. De Moura, Mourad Moursi, Abdelrahman Lubowa, Barbara Ha, Erick Boy, Babatunde Oguntona, Rasaki A. Sanusi, and Busie Maziya-Dixon, in the peer-reviewed journal, PLoS ONE (Vol. 10 Issue 6) as part of IFPRI's HarvestPlus program.
As part of the HarvestPlus provitamin A-biofortified cassava program in Nigeria we conducted a survey to determine the cassava intake and prevalence of vitamin A deficiency among children 6-59 months and women of childbearing age in the state of Akwa Ibom.
A cluster-randomized cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2011 in Akwa Ibom, Nigeria. The usual food and nutrient intakes were estimated using a multi-pass 24-hour recall with repeated recall on a subsample. Blood samples of children and women were collected to analyze for serum retinol, serum ferritin, and acute phase proteins as indicators of infection. Vitamin A deficiency was defined as serum retinol <0.70 μmol/L adjusted for infection.
A total of 587 households of a mother-child dyad participated in the dietary intake assessment. Cassava was very widely consumed in Akwa Ibom, mainly as gari or foofoo. Daily cassava consumption frequency was 92% and 95% among children and women, respectively. Mean (±SD) cassava intake (expressed as raw fresh weight) was 348 ± 317 grams/day among children and 940 ± 777 grams/day among women. Intakes of most micronutrients appeared to be adequate with the exception of calcium. Median vitamin A intake was very high both for children (1038 μg RAE/day) and women (2441 μg RAE/day). Red palm oil and dark green leafy vegetables were the main sources of vitamin A in the diet, with red palm oil alone contributing almost 60% of vitamin A intake in women and children. Prevalence of vitamin A deficiency ranged from moderate (16.9 %) among children to virtually non-existent (3.4 %) among women.
Consumption of cassava and vitamin A intake was high among women and children in Akwa Ibom with a prevalence of vitamin A deficiency ranging from moderate in children to non-existent among women. The provitamin A biofortified cassava and other vitamin A interventions should focus dissemination in states where red palm oil is not widely consumed.
New Publication in the NSSP Working Paper Series: “Optimal tariffs with smuggling: A spatial analysis of Nigerian rice policy options”
The Nigeria Strategy Support Program (NSSP) is pleased to announce the publication of the paper entitled "Optimal tariffs with smuggling: A spatial analysis of Nigerian rice policy options" by Dr. Michael E. Johnson and Dr. Paul A. Dorosh in the NSSP Working Paper Series (Working Paper No. 29).
Abstract: Utilizing a spatial multi-market model for rice in Nigeria that explicitly takes into account the potential for smuggling, in this paper we analyze the welfare implications of alternative rice tariff rates given the government’s goals of spurring domestic production and reducing imports. Because smuggling occurs through the diversion of imports from Lagos, the official port of entry in the south, to the north, our modeling framework also captures the spatial effects of higher tariffs on changes in rural and urban prices, production and consumption, the flow of trade in rice, and welfare across different parts of the country. Results show that tariff rates that exceed about 40 percent introduce some smuggling of rice through the north when smuggling becomes more profitable than importing through official channels in the south. It is also at this tipping point that government tariff revenues are maximized. At higher tariff rates with smuggling, the south experiences greater welfare losses, especially in urban areas.
New Journal Publication – Fertilizer subsidies, political influence and local food prices in sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Nigeria
The Nigeria Strategy Support Program (NSSP) is pleased to announce the publication of “Fertilizer subsidies, political influence and local food prices in sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Nigeria” by Hiroyuki Takeshima (Research Fellow, IFPRI) and Lenis Saweda O. Liverpool-Tasie (Assistant Professor, MSU), in Food Policy (Vol. 54). A version of this publication was previously published as a conference paper prepared for presentation at the Agricultural & Applied Economics Association’s 2013 AAEA & CAES Joint Annual Meeting in Washington, DC.
Abstract: The last decade has seen a resurgence in the use of fertilizer subsidies in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there is limited empirical evidence on the effects of fertilizer subsidy programs on local food prices. Using an instrumental variables approach, we explore the effect of a fertilizer subsidy program on the seasonal growth rates of grain prices in Nigeria. Our results suggest that the fertilizer subsidy program had very small effects on the growth rates of grain prices between the post-planting and post-harvesting seasons. We also find that political influence played a role in the distribution of subsidized fertilizer. We discuss how the weak effects on the price growth rates may be caused by low market orientation, output market structures, greater focus on farmers’ incomes, low marginal productivity of fertilizer, and politically influenced targeting.
New Journal Publication – Productivity effects of sustainable intensification: The case of urea deep placement for rice production in Niger State, Nigeria
The Nigeria Strategy Support Program (NSSP) is pleased to announce the publication of “Productivity effects of sustainable intensification: The case of urea deep placement for rice production in Niger State, Nigeria” by Lenis Saweda O. Liverpool-Tasie (Assistant Professor, MSU), Serge Adjognon (Graduate Research Assistant, MSU), and Oluyemisi Kuku-Shittu (Associate Research Fellow, IFPRI-NSSP) , in the African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics (Vol. 10, No 1).
Abstract: This paper uses household data to explore the yield effects of an intensification practice called urea deep placement (UDP) in Nigeria. The propensity score matching and instrumental variables methods provide consistent evidence of a positive and significant effect of UDP on rice yields. The Rosenbaum sensitivity analysis reveals that these results are not likely driven by unobservable factors.
The paper also finds that farmers’ yields are further enhanced by adhering to several prescribed practices, confirming the potential for UDP to significantly improve rice yields.
New Journal Publication: The Effect of Perception of Extension Service on Small Farm Holders Agricultural Production
The Nigeria Strategy Support Program (NSSP) is pleased to announce the publication of “The Effect of Perception of Extension Service on Small Farm Holders Agricultural Production” by NSSP Senior Research Assistant, Motunrayo Oyeyemi, in the Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, (Vol. 6, No 12).
Empirical studies have suggested that agricultural extension can increase agricultural productivity. However, the increase in productivity relies largely on various auxiliary issues. Thus, this particular study was conducted among a subset group of southern-African farmers in order to examine the relationship between the provision of extension services and increased productivity in a regional context. An analysis of views in perception of these small scale farmers was used as a guide in estimating the efficacy of extension services. Perception as an indicator was then examined to access its extrapolative value in agricultural policies. The views of these farmers were analyzed using regression analysis to determine how extension services affected their performance. The findings revealed that positive perception extension services correlates to negative agricultural performance. While poor perceptions of extension services have tendencies of higher yield. Other factors of importance in the correlation identified were education, experience and exposure. These factors influenced perceptions and essentially agricultural yield.
New Publication in the NSSP Working Paper Series: “Commercial Banks’ Response to Government’s Financial Stimulus for Improved Agricultural Financing in Nigeria”
The Nigeria Strategy Support Program (NSSP) is pleased to announce the publication of the paper entitled “Commercial Banks’ Response to Government’s Financial Stimulus for Improved Agricultural Financing in Nigeria” by Prof. Aderibigbe S. Olomola and Maryam Yaro in the NSSP Working Paper Series (Working Paper No. 28).
Abstract: This study
- Examines the implementation of recent agricultural finance policies and incentives associated with the Nigerian Incentive-based Risk Sharing System for Agricultural Lending (NIRSAL) and the stimulus funds for boosting agricultural lending, the Commercial Agricultural Credit Scheme (CACS),
- Determines the impact of these financial capital interventions (stimulus to the banking sector) through the instrumentality of CACS on the flow of credit to the agricultural sector,
- Examines the factors militating against increased funding of agriculture by the banking sector, and
- Articulates policies and strategies for improved participation of the banking sector in agricultural financing in Nigeria. The study was executed using data obtained from all the commercial banks in the country in a survey conducted between March and September 2013 plus secondary data covering the period from 2006 to 2012.
New Publication in the NSSP Working Paper Series: “Understanding the Framework for Intergovernmental Interactions in the Implementation of Nigeria’s Agricultural Transformation Agenda”
The Nigeria Strategy Support Program (NSSP) is pleased to announce the publication of the paper entitled "Understanding the Framework for Intergovernmental Interactions in the Implementation of Nigeria’s Agricultural Transformation Agenda" by Prof. Aderibigbe S. Olomola in the NSSP Working Paper Series (Working Paper No. 27).
Abstract: This study focuses on intergovernmental interactions in Nigeria’s Agricultural Transformation Agenda (ATA). ATA may not be able to achieve its desired objectives unless the intergovernmental and inter-agency interactions are well understood, coordinated, and integrated into the design and implementation of the various ATA programs, especially those that are still being developed. Unfortunately, the interactions among the three tiers of government in Nigeria is still not recognized by policy makers as a major issue in refining the design of the transformation process and reinforcing it. No tier of government acting alone in making decisions that affect all three tiers of government can create an environment that will be sufficiently enabling to ensure that farmers and other beneficiaries of ATA initiatives receive the maximum benefits obtainable. If the buy-in of a particular level of government is not properly and meaningfully secured, implementation of programs can be fraught with delays and avoidable costs. These may jeopardize the sustainability of ATA. This study seeks to:
The Nigeria Strategy Support Program (NSSP) is pleased to announce the publication of Onset Risk and Draft Animal Investment in Nigeria by Dr. Hiroyuki Takeshima (Research Fellow - IFPRI) in the Journal of International Agricultural Trade and Development (Vol. 9, Issue 2, 2015).
Abstract: Onset risk, the uncertainty in the onset of rainy season, is an important element of weather risk for African farmers with little access to formal insurance who engage in traditional rainfed farming. A knowledge gap still exists empirically on how onset risk may affect the investment decisions of these farmers. In particular, farm productivity in Africa still depends on substantial labor inputs at the onset of the rainy season, sometimes involving seasonal migration to rural areas. With credit and insurance market failure, poor access to weather-related information, and high labor mobility costs, high and increasing onset risk may affect farmers’ demand for farm mechanization. We test this hypothesis by investigating the effect of onset risk on farmers’ investment in draft animals in northern and central Nigeria. We use the example of a public project providing farmers with financial support for the acquisition of productive assets. We calculate the onset of the rainy season using daily rainfall data in various locations across Nigeria and identify locations that have experienced increasing, decreasing, or constant onset risk in the past few decades. We then exploit the panel structure of our dataset and employ stratified propensity score matching to estimate the average treatment effect on the treated, differentiated by the onset risk and its change. The results support our hypothesis. Farmers in areas with higher, increasing, or constant onset risk were more likely to invest in draft animals, and such effects are clearer among larger-scale farmers. Linkages are also clearer with onset risk compared to annual rainfall risk.
A version of this paper was previously published as an IFPRI Discussion Paper (No. 1198).
The Nigeria Strategy Support Program (NSSP) is pleased to announce the publication of Farmer Preferences on Seed Purchase Timing: Some Evidence from Nigeria by Dr. Hiroyuki Takeshima (Research Fellow - IFPRI) and Dr. Latha Nagarajan (Economist - IFDC) in the Journal of Crop Improvement (Vol. 29, Issue 1, 2015).
Abstract: Timely availability of seeds, typically immediately before the planting season, is considered one of the important factors for rapid adoption of quality seeds of improved varieties in Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. Empirical information on whether farmers are willing to pay (WTP) premium for obtaining seeds at their desired timing can help in assessing the feasibility of public sector support for timely delivery of quality seeds of improved varieties. This study estimates how farmers’ WTP for seed varies depending on the timing of the purchase using both revealed preference (RP) and stated preference (SP) models. The results indicate that WTP varies with the timing. Low-income farmers in Nigeria may prefer to pay premium price for cowpea seeds if those seeds can be made available closer to the planting season, while most high-income farmers may pay the same price regardless of the timing. Implications for future research needs are discussed.
NSSP-IFPRI participates in a Strategy and Planning Workshop for the Knowledge Management (KM) Framework and System for the Agricultural Transformation Agenda (ATA)
Dr. George Mavrotas, NSSP-IFPRI Program Leader, was invited to participate in the main panel discussion for the Strategy and Planning of the Knowledge Management (KM) Framework for the Agricultural Transformation Agenda (ATA). The event, held on March 18, 2015 in Abuja, was jointly organized by the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (FMARD), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) and the World Bank. Mr. Francis Neuman, Knowledge Management Advisor, UNDP RSC-ESA, launched the four-day workshop by reiterating the value addition that KM brings to the ATA. Firstly, it serves to strengthen the ATA systematically through the KM System management and infrastructure components and secondly through its application - increasing access to information, impact on policy development, innovation and learning.
Dr. Mavrotas participated in a roundtable discussion with key stakeholder groups focusing on ways to create awareness to enable a clear direction on the importance and modalities for developing and implementing the KM Framework, System and Action plan. This is a key area of the ATA as it shapes a KM Framework that will clearly reflect stakeholder needs and accurately define the major principles and mechanisms by which ATA stakeholders will be guided while implementing the change process. The event was a follow up on the October 2014 conference, and in which Dr. Mavrotas presented on behalf of IFPRI-NSSP a white paper on the policy lessons emanating from other countries in this area, and on the identified capacity development needs in order to ensure that the goals of the ATA will be fully achieved.
The key stakeholder groups represented at the Panel Discussion were from the Ministry of Agriculture (Mr. Emebinah Ebuka, Consultant, Phillips Consulting Limited), Farmers Organization (Mrs. Lizzy Igbine, Nigerian Women Agro-Allied Farmers), Research Organizations (Dr. George Mavrotas, NSSP-IFPRI), the Agribusiness Private Sector (Mr. Daniel Udo, Agribusiness and Investment) and the Development Partners (Ms. Alefia Merchant, USAID Agriculture Development Officer). The discussion was moderated by Mr. Steffen Janus (Senior Operations Officer, Knowledge Hubs, World Bank). IFPRI expressed its commitment towards the direction of promoting data collaboration with competent access for sharing acquired data across the KM System. It was also stressed that the involvement of the Agricultural Research Council of Nigeria (ARCN) in the implementation of the KM Framework for ATA would be important as it can play a key role in strengthening the Nigerian agricultural research system.
New Publication: The Political Economy of Food Price Policy in Nigeria in Food Price Policy in an Era of Market Instability: A Political Economy Analysis
The Nigeria Strategy Support Program (NSSP) is pleased to announce the publication of The Political Economy of Food Price Policy in Nigeria by NSSP Senior Economist/Consultant, Aderibigbe Olomola, as a chapter in Food Price in an Era of Market Instability: A Political Economy Analysis edited by Per Pinstrup-Andersen, and recently published by the Oxford University Press.
About this book: Food price volatility is one of the major challenges facing current and future global food systems. Since 2006, global food prices have fluctuated greatly around an increasing trend and price spikes were observed for key food commodities such as rice, wheat, and maize. The full or partial transmission of these global food price changes to individual developing countries, together with domestic food price changes, caused by domestic factors such as extreme weather events and market disruptions, caused governments to respond in a variety of ways. While there is ample description of the nature, content, and causes of food price fluctuations during the last 5 to 7 years, very little is known about the processes that led to policy responses or the relative power and behaviour of the participating stakeholder groups. Understanding how and why governments responded as they did is important to enhance the existing knowledge of the political economy of food price policy and to assist governments in their policy-making as they confront future food price fluctuations. This book presents results from political economy studies of food price policy in 14 developing countries as well as the United States and the European Union.
New Publication: Communities’ Perceptions and Knowledge of Ecosystem Services: Evidence from Rural Communities in Nigeria
The Nigeria Strategy Support Program (NSSP) is pleased to announce a new publication from the International Food Policy Research Institute's Environment and Production Technology Division entitled Communities’ Perceptions and Knowledge of Ecosystem Services: Evidence from Rural Communities in Nigeria by Wei Zhang, Edward Kato, Prapti Bhandary, Ephraim Nkonya, Hassan Ishaq Ibrahim, Mure Agbonlahor, and Hussaini Yusuf Ibrahim as the 1418th publication of the IFPRI Discussion Paper Series. The IFPRI Discussion Paper was published in February 2015.
Abstract: This research has been undertaken to improve our understanding of stakeholders’ knowledge and perception about ecosystem services (ES), which provides a valuable means of gaining insight into the opportunities and constraints that face ES management in a multiuser landscape. Land use preferences are influenced by a variety of motives, attitudes, and values intrinsic to every individual’s decisionmaking. Knowledge can affect attitudes and behavioral intentions, and a positive attitude toward the environment has been found to predict conservation practices. Using primary data collected from a village survey of 102 villages in Nigeria between November 2012 and February 2013, this study assesses local communities’ awareness, perceptions, and knowledge of a broad range of ES and examines the key factors that explain the variations in the level of awareness across communities, with a special focus on land uses within landscapes. We found that exposure to forest and lowland floodplains was positively correlated with people’s level of awareness of ES, highlighting the importance of direct experience and local context in shaping people’s perceptions toward ES. Such considerations should be taken into account when designing policies aimed at addressing natural resources and environmental management issues. While provisioning services were generally well recognized, consistent with findings of previous studies, a majority of the sampled villages also appreciated spiritual values as a cultural service. Communities’ awareness and knowledge about regulating and supporting ES were generally very low, including those services that are important for maintaining the stability and productivity of agroecosystems (for example, pollination and biological pest control), warranting a greater role for agricultural extension to play in influencing community levels of awareness of ES in Nigeria. Furthermore, incorporating new concepts and topics about ES into the primary school curriculum will better educate people about the importance of ES. Finally, our assessment of communities’ attitudes toward payments for environmental services suggests a need to respect local communities’ preferences, norms, and traditions when designing policies that encourage natural resources management.
NSSP-IFPRI contributes to the FMARD High-Level Policy Dialogue on Nutrition Sensitive Agriculture in Nigeria
The Nigeria Strategy Support Program (NSSP) of the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) was invited to speak at the High-Level Policy Dialogue on Nutrition Sensitive Agriculture in Nigeria held on March 17, 2015 in Abuja, Nigeria. The event, organized by the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (FMARD), engaged influential stakeholders and development partners from Nigeria’s agricultural industry, representatives of international organizations, the donor community, NGOs and the civil society, in order to focus on the nation’s agricultural and nutrition policy. In particular the event’s main objective was to drive a high profile advocacy effort to raise the profile of nutrition sensitive agriculture and shape agricultural policy efforts that would enhance nutrition in Nigeria, and to create a shared understanding and engage international expertise and best practices on nutrition transformative agricultural policies and programmes.
As part of the above event, Dr. George Mavrotas, NSSP-IFPRI Program Leader, was invited to give a presentation on the key findings and policy lessons emanating from the Global Nutrition Report (GNR) 2014 published by IFPRI in November 2014. The presentation reflected also on key statistics from the GNR, such as that malnutrition accounts for 45 percent of global child death and that a 16 to 1 return exists on nutrition investments. These were cited by the Honorable Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development, Dr. Akinwumi Adesina, as clear signs of the need to mainstream nutrition into agriculture. The event highlighted inter alia the need for improving data on nutrition to provide ancillary benefits such as the creation of indices for Nigerian states to measure performance on key public nutrition programme efforts to meet the needs of malnourished individuals and to improve the health and economic security of low-income families. It was also stressed that access to more accurate data may improve policies and practices that would expand the reach of federal nutrition programs.
In addition, Dr. Mavrotas was a panelist in the main panel on Nutrition-Transformative Agriculture Policy which included the Honorable Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development, Dr. Yaya Olaniran (Ambassador and Nigeria’s Permanent Representative to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Orgarnization (FAO), World Food Programme (WFP) and the International Fund for Agriculture and Rural Development (IFAD) in Rome), Ms. Ada Osakwe (Senior Investment Advisor to the Honorable Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development), Professor Paul Amaza (Vice Chair of the Agricultural Transformation Agenda Policy Working Group), Ms. Emmy Simmons (Global Panel on Agriculture, Food Systems and Nutrition), and was moderated by Ms. Ndidi Nwuneli (Founder of Leap Africa). The event was concluded with the inauguration of the Interministerial Agriculture Nutrition Working Group, which included Ms. Margaret Adesugba as a member, NSSP-IFPRI Senior Research Assistant, and which was introduced by the Honorable Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development, Dr. Akinwumi Adesina.
The Nigeria Strategy Support Program (NSSP) is pleased to announce the publication of Market Imperfections for Tractor Service Provision in Nigeria by Hiroyuki Takeshima as the 1424 publication of the IFPRI Discussion Paper Series. The IFPRI Discussion Paper was published in March 2015.
Abstract: Agricultural mechanization often accompanies agricultural transformation. In some countries in Africa south of Sahara (SSA), such as Nigeria, the mechanization process appears slow, in spite of the declining share of the agricultural sector in the economy and employment. Knowledge gaps exist regarding this slow mechanization process, and filling this knowledge gap is important in identifying appropriate policies on agricultural mechanization in Nigeria. In Nigeria, average horsepower and prices of tractors appear high, despite the scarcity of tractors. These patterns are different from the experiences in other parts of the world where initially tractor horsepower was often smaller (for example Asia), or farmers were better endowed with land and wealth (the Americas). In Nigeria, joint ownership of tractors is rare, and formal loans are often unavailable due to high transactions costs. IFPRI’s survey in Kaduna and Nasarawa states in 2013 also suggested that the spatial mobility of tractors is generally low, and uses are highly seasonal (Takeshima et al. 2014). There do not seem to be plausible explanations for the seeming dominance of large tractor use, based on the available information of the prices and soils. Nevertheless, these patterns seem driven by private sector’s own initiative rather than by governments’ policies. Indivisibility of large tractors and limited mobility of supplies may cause the imperfection in the custom hiring market. In order to distinguish the impacts of technology adoption at the extensive margin from those at the intensive margin, in the empirical analyses we tested these hypotheses focusing on the differences among marginal adopters of tractor hiring services and nonadopters of similar characteristics. The results are two-fold: (1) adoptions patterns of tractor services are partly explained by basic factor endowments, suggesting that the market for custom hiring is in some way functioning efficiently in response to economic conditions; (2) adoptions are, however, affected by supply-side factors including the presence of large farm households (and thus potential tractor owners) within the district, and (3) per capita household expenditure level differs significantly between the marginal adopters and nonadopters of similar characteristics. This difference seems to arise from the adoption per se, rather than the intensity of adoption, which is consistent with the hypothesis of the imperfection of the custom hiring market.
IFPRI’s flagship report puts into perspective the major food policy issues, developments, and decisions in 2014 and highlights challenges and opportunities for 2015. Drawing on rigorous research, IFPRI researchers and other distinguished food policy experts consider a wide range of crucial questions:
- How can middle income countries, which despite becoming more affluent are still home to the majority of the world’s hungry people, address their food and nutrition security challenges?
- What is the role of improved sanitation in shaping key nutrition outcomes, especially for children?
- How can we support smallholder farmers in “moving up” in agriculture or “moving out” of the sector altogether?
- What social protection measures help shield vulnerable people effectively and efficiently against an increasing number of shocks?
- How can we best build and regulate the capacity of actors along the food chain to tackle food safety and health risks?
- How should we address food and nutrition security of people living in conflict zones?
- What policies can support the sustainable development of the aquaculture sector as the global demand for fish skyrockets?
- What have been the major developments in regions and countries where poor and hungry people reside?
The 2014–2015 Global Food Policy Report also presents data for several key food policy indicators, including country-level data on hunger, agricultural research spending, and capacity for food policy research. In addition to illustrative figures, tables, and a timeline of food policy events during the past year, the report also presents the results of a global opinion poll on the current state of food policy.
New Publication – Determinants of Change and Household Responses to Food Insecurity: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria
The Nigeria Strategy Support Program (NSSP) is pleased to announce the publication of Determinants of Change and Household Responses to Food Insecurity: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria by NSSP Research Analyst, Hyacinth Edeh, and former NSSP Program Leader, Kwabena Gyimah-Brempong, in the African Journal of Agriculture (Vol. 10 Issue 5). The article was published on January 29, 2015.
Abstract: Limited economic and physical capacities as well as environmental and economic shocks have constrained the ability of many Nigerian households to feed themselves adequately. This has resulted in food shortages; and they had to adopt various consumption-related strategies to mitigate the effect of the shortfalls. Using the 2010/2011 Nigeria Living Standards Measurement Study-Integrated Surveys on Agriculture data and the reduced consumption coping strategy index (RCCSI), this paper examined the determinants of change in food (in)security of Nigerian households in the two major farming periods. Results showed that there were significant differences in the food insecurity status of households in the two periods. The likelihood of change in the food security status were determined by sex of the household head, farmland holdings, nature of livelihood, shocks associated with land loss, and climate change events. Coping strategies in the two periods were dietary change and rationing strategies. However, the frequency of use of these strategies was higher in the post-planting period and more among female-headed households. The use of high-yielding climate-resistant crops and reduction in post-harvest losses through processing and improved storage facilities were advocated.
The Ghana Strategy Support Program (GSSP) and the Nigeria Strategy Support Program (NSSP) of the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) held a joint retreat in Ghana from January 19-23, 2015. The retreat was attended by researchers and staff from both NSSP and GSSP along with Washington, DC based researchers that contribute to these programs. The retreat included planning days for each program, a roundtable discussion on “Agriculture, Youth and Employment” co-hosted by IFPRI and ISSER, a dissemination event on the Nigerian rice economy and value chains in Ghana, and a field visit to the Kpong Irrigation Scheme.
The Ghana Strategy Support Program (GSSP) and the Nigeria Strategy Support Program (NSSP) of the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) held a joint seminar covering two topics: 1) the rice economy in Nigeria and 2) value chains in Ghana, on January 22, 2015 in Accra, Ghana. The event was attended by members of the Ghanaian Ministry of Agriculture and Ministry of Finance, Development Partners, and other stakeholders. The event was chaired by Dr. Paul Dorosh, Division Director, Development Strategy and Governance Division, IFPRI.
Dr. Hiroyuki Takeshima, Research Fellow, IFPRI and Dr. Michael Johnson, Research Fellow, IFRPI, presented findings on the Nigerian experience from their study, “Assessing the Potential and Policy Alternatives for Achieving Rice Competitiveness and Growth in Nigeria” (a policy note is available here). A more comprehensive overview of Nigeria’s rice economy will be published in the upcoming year in the forthcoming book, Achieving Rice Self-Sufficiency in Nigeria: Options for Future Strategies and Policies, edited by Dr. Kwabena Gyimah-Brempong, Dr. Michael Johnson, and Dr. Hiroyuki Takeshima and published by the University of Pennsylvania Press. The Ghanaian experience was also presented in a presentation entitled, “Reaching Smallholders through Value Chain Development” by Dr. Shashidhara Kolavalli, GSSP Program Leader/Senior Research Fellow, IFPRI.